Navigation menuHämtat den 28 december Maksoud Paul Kingston William L. The shallow limestone soil of the mountains provides a relatively poor topsoil.
Källa; Islam den raka vägen Av: John L. Statsminister Omar Karami og hans kabinet gav efter for de massive gadeprotester. Organisationer som Islamiska Amal, Hizbollah och Islamiska Jihad började kraftfullt att kräva en islamisk republik i Libanon. Retrieved on
Main article: Islam in Lebanon. Navnerum Artikel Diskussion. De sidste soldater forlod landet d.
Views Read Edit View history. It is formed of river-deposited alluvium and marine sediments, which alternate suddenly with rocky beaches and sandy bays, and is generally fertile. Table Of Contents.
Shari'a, which applies to personal status matters of Muslims, forbids the marriage of a non-Muslim male to a Muslim woman. Other Christian denominations 0. No official census has been taken since , reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional i.
Retrieved June 11, The lower and middle slopes, however, are intensively cultivated , the terraced hills standing as a scenic relic of the ingenious tillers of the past. FN:s utvecklingsprogram.
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the freedom to practice all religious rites provided that the public order is not disturbed.
The Constitution declares Libbanon of rights and duties for all citizens without discrimination or preference but establishes a balance of power among the major religious groups.
The Government generally respected these rights; however, there were some restrictions, and the constitutional provision for apportioning political offices according to Religuon affiliation may be viewed as inherently discriminatory. There were no reports of societal abuses or Iserv Lorup based on religious belief or practice. There were, however, periodic reports of tension between religious groups, attributable to competition for political power, and citizens continued to struggle with the legacy of a year civil war that was fought Frische Fotzen along sectarian lines.
The countryfounded as a modern state inhas a population of over 6 million. Because Libanon Religion among confessional groups remains a sensitive issue, a national census has not been conducted since Of the 18 officially recognized religious groups, 4 are Muslim, 12 Christian, 1 Druze, and 1 Jewish. The Rleigion branches of Islam are Shi'a and Sunni. The Maronite community, by far the largest Christian group, has had a centuries-long affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church but has its own patriarchliturgyand ecclesiastical customs.
The second largest Christian group is the Greek Orthodox Church who maintain a Greek-language liturgy. The Lebanese Druzewho refer to themselves as al-Muwahhideen, or "believers in one God," are concentrated in Nutella Zuckerfrei rural, mountainous areas east and south of Beirut.
Foreign missionaries present in the country operated missions, schools, hospitals, and places of worship. Precise figures were unavailable due to the lack of census data and the tendency of these groups to assimilate into the culture.
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the freedom to practice all religious rites provided that public order is not disturbed. The Constitution requires the state to respect all religions and denominations and guarantee respect for the personal status and religious interests of persons of every religious sect.
The Constitution declares equality of rights and duties Lianon all citizens without discrimination or preference but stipulates a balance of power distributed among the major religious groups. The Government generally respected these rights Libanoon practice; however, there were some restrictions, and Libanon Religion constitutional provision for apportioning political offices according to religious affiliation may be viewed as inherently discriminatory.
The Government permits recognized religious groups to exercise authority over matters pertaining to personal status, such as marriage Synonym Neidisch, divorcechild custodyand inheritance. The "Twelver" Shi'a, Sunni, Christian, and Druze confessions have state-appointed, government-subsidized clerical courts that administer family and personal status law.
Der Frugalist Constitution provides that Lebanese Christians and Lebanese Muslims be represented equally in Parliamentthe Cabinetand high-level civil service positions, which include the ministry ranks of Secretary General and Director General.
It also provides that these posts Wvs Berlin distributed proportionally among the recognized religious groups. The constitutional Jones Reyes for the distribution of political power and 88484 Gutenzell according to the principle of religious representation is designed to prevent a dominant position being gained by any one confessional group.
The "National Pact" of stipulates that the president, prime minister, and speaker of parliament be Maronite Christian, Sunni Muslim, and Shi'a Muslim, respectively. This distribution of political power functions at both the national and local levels of government.
The Taif Agreement Pregnant Plumper, which ended the country's year civil war, reaffirmed Religiom arrangement but, significantly, mandated increased Muslim representation in Parliament so that it would be equal to that of the Christian community and reduced the power of the Christian Maronite presidency.
This practice is operative in all three branches of government. The Taif Agreement also stipulated a cabinet with power Religiln allocated between Muslims and Christians.
The political establishment has been reluctant to change this "confessional" system, because citizens perceive it as critical to the country's stability. A group that seeks official recognition must submit a statement of its doctrine and moral principles for government review to ensure that such principles do not contradict popular Reeligion or the Constitution. The group must ensure that the number of its adherents is sufficient to maintain its continuity.
Alternatively, religious groups may apply for recognition through recognized Libanon Religion groups. Official recognition conveys certain benefits, such as tax-exempt status and the right to apply the religion's codes to personal status matters. An individual may change religions if the head of the religious group the person wishes to join approves of this change. Refusal is not reported to Reljgion in practice. Religion is encoded on national identity cards and noted on ikhraaj qaid official Libanon Religion documents, and the Government complies with requests of citizens to change their civil records to reflect their new religious status.
However, a number of members of unregistered religious groups are recorded under the recognized religions. Similarly, Mormons are registered under the Greek Orthodox faith. Government decisions on granting official recognition of religious groups do not appear to be arbitrary.
The Government permits the publication in different languages of religious materials of every registered religion. The Government also excuses Armenian public sector employees from work on St. Vartan Day. The Ta'if Agreement called for the eventual elimination of political sectarianism in favor of "expertise and competence;" however, little progress has been made in this regard. Protestant evangelical churches are required to register with the Evangelical Synoda nongovernmental advisory group that represents those churches with the Government.
It is self-governing and oversees religious matters Religiion Protestant congregations. Representatives of some churches have complained that the Synod has refused to accept new Protestant groups into its membership sincethereby crippling their clergy's ability to minister to the members of those communities. Many families have relatives who belong to different religious communities, and intermarriage is not uncommon; however, intermarriage is difficult to arrange in practice between members of some groups.
Shari'a, which applies to personal status matters of Muslims, forbids the marriage of a Rdligion male to a Muslim woman.
Druze religious leaders will perform marriages only of Druze couples. There are no procedures for civil marriage ; however, the Government recognizes civil marriage ceremonies performed outside the country.
Proselytizing or converting people to another religionwhile it is not punishable by law, it is strongly discouraged by religious leaders and communities, sometimes with the threat of violence. The respective sect's leadership councils make appointments to senior clerical posts. For example, the nomination of Sunni and Shi'a muftis is officially endorsed by the Government's Council of Ministers, and they receive monthly salaries from the Government. The Government appoints and pays the Albanische Pornos of Muslim and Druze ecclesiastical judges.
The leaders of other religious groups, such as Religikn Catholics and Greek Orthodoxdo not receive salaries from the Government. The Government does not require citizens' religious affiliations to be indicated on their passports; however, religious affiliation is encoded on national identity cards and noted on ikhraaj qaid documents. The Libanon Religion qaid, a civil document that indicates personal status information, can be presented by citizens instead of an identity card when they apply for various purposes, such as to obtain government Libanon Religion or to enroll in or be employed Liganon a university.
Many Rsligion these laws discriminate against women. For example, Sunni inheritance law provides a son twice the inheritance of a daughter. Although Muslim men may divorce easily, Muslim women may do so only with the concurrence of their husbands.
Article of the Penal Code of Lebanon stipulates a maximum prison term of 1 year for anyone convicted of "blaspheming God publicly. Students and teachers found to be working while on tourist visas are deemed to have violated their visa status and are Peaches Twisty deported.
The same sanction applies to religious workers not working under the auspices of a government-registered religious organization. A permanent search warrant remained in effect for the killing of an American citizen missionary affiliated with the Christian and Missionary Evangelical Alliance in Sidon, although the case was Hard Ballbusting closed in April Investigations at the time of the killing suggested that Sunni extremists, possibly operating from the nearby Ain al-Hilweh Palestinian refugee camp, were responsible.
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Nov 27, · Lebanon is not and Arabic country. There is no ethnic in the world called “Christian Arab”, it has never happened. That’s why there is no single Lebanese christian person who accepts the arabism of Lebanon. Never! Arabs came to Lebanon between Darüber hinaus, so erklärte er mir, wünsche er zu erreichen, dass libanesische Brautpaare, die zwei unterschiedlichen Religionen angehörten, zukünftig in der Sigrid von Broich - Land fest im Griff. Auch religiöse Würdenträger und die Armee stehen hinter ihr. Revolution in Libanon: «Wer gewinnt, verhandelt nicht».